Arabic Alphabet With English

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This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide to IPA symbols, see Help: IPA. For the distinction between [ ] , / / and ⟨  ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transliteration punctuation.

Arabic Alphabet With English

Arabic script is the writing system used for Arabic and many other languages ​​in Asia and Africa. It is the second most widespread writing system in the world in terms of the number of countries using it or a script directly derived from it, and the third in terms of number of users (after Latin and Chinese characters).

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The script was first used to write Arabic texts, especially the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam. As the religion spread, it came to be used as the primary script for many foreign language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols. Such languages ​​that still use it are: Persian (Farsi/Dari), Malay (Jawi), Uighur, Kurdish, Punjabi (Shahmukh), Sindhi, Balti, Baluchi, Pashto, Luri, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali and Mandinka . , Muré among them and others.

Until the 16th century, it was also used for some Spanish texts and – before the linguistic reform of 1928 – was the writing system of the Turkish language.

The font is written from right to left in an italic style, with most letters written in slightly different shapes depending on whether they stand alone or are combined with the next or previous letter. The basic form of the letter, however, remains unchanged. The script is not capitalized.

In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjad, the variants used for some languages ​​such as Sorani, Uighur, Mandarin, and Serbo-Croatian being alphabets. It is also the basis of the Arabic calligraphy tradition.

Linking Arabic Alphabet Poster

Both are derived from the Aramaic alphabet (which also gave rise to the Hebrew alphabet), the latter being derived from the Phocian alphabet. In addition to the Aramaic alphabet (and thus the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets), the Fecian alphabet also gave rise to the Greek alphabet (and thus both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets used to write this article).

In the 6th and 5th centuries BC, Arab tribes from the north migrated and established a kingdom around Petra in Jordan. These people (now called Nabateans after one of Nabata’s tribes) spoke Nabatean Arabic, a dialect of the Arabic language. In the 2nd or 1st century BC

The first known records of the Nabatean alphabet were written in Aramaic (which was the language of communication and trade), but incorporated some features of the Arabic language: the Nabateans did not write the language they spoke. They wrote in the form of the Aramaic alphabet, which continued to evolve; it split into two forms: one intended for inscriptions (known as the “Nabatean monument”) and the other, more cursive and hastily written and with joined letters, for writing on papyrus.

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in several languages ​​besides Arabic, including non-Semitic Persian, Malay, and Urdu. Such adaptations may include modified or new signs to replace phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, Arabic does not have a double-layered voiceless plosive (the [p] sound), so many languages ​​add their own letter to replace [p] in the script, although the specific letter used varies from language to language. These changes could be divided into groups: the Indian and Turkic languages ​​written in the Arabic script to use modified Persian letters, while the languages ​​of Indonesia imitated the Jawi languages. A modified version of the Arabic script, originally designed for use with Persian, is known among scholars as the Perso-Arabic script.

Persian Alphabet And Writing System

When the Arabic script is used to write Serbo-Croatian, Sorani, Kashmiri, Mandarin Chinese, or Uighur, vowels are required. The Arabic script can therefore be used as both a true alphabet and an abjad, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, associated with the latter, as it was originally used only for Arabic.

The use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To some extent, the style and usage follow the Maghreb (for example, the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf).

Additional diacritical marks began to be used to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term ʻAjamī, derived from the Arabic root for “foreigner”, is used for spellings of African languages ​​based on Arabic.

Sometimes it refers to a very specific calligraphic style, and sometimes it applies more broadly to almost any script that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.

Arabic Alphabet Table Stock Illustration. Illustration Of Arabictable

It is used for almost all modern Urdu texts, but only occasionally for Persian. (The term “nastaliq” is sometimes used by Urdu speakers for all Perso-Arabic scripts.)

This spelling is complete. 3 of the 4 (ۆ, ۄ, ێ) additional glyphs are actually vowels. Not all vowels are listed here because they are not separate letters. For more information, see Kashmiri writing.

г is interchangeable with г. Additionally, the symbols ی and ۲ are often replaced by ۲ in Pakistan.

Today, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and China are the main non-Arabic speaking countries that use the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azeri, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi. , Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uighur.

How To Write And Pronounce Arabic Alphabet

With the establishment of Muslim rule in the subcontinent, one or more forms of Arabic writing were included among the series of scripts used to write the native languages.

Parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union it is after a short period of Latinization

The use of the Cyrillic alphabet was mandatory. Turkey switched to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Western revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many Turkic languages ​​of the former USSR tried to follow Turkey’s lead and convert to the Turkic-style Latin alphabet. However, the reuse of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language is very similar to Persian and allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.

Pe used to replace the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kawar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish, Kashmiri; in Arabic it can be used to describe the phoneme /p/, otherwise it is normalized to /b/ ب e.g. pol Paul also wrote bol

Arabic Alphabet: The Guide To Learning The Arabic Letters And Script

Used to illustrate the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages ​​such as Fulfulde.

Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (which is written in the Sindhi alphabet); used to replace the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Xiao’erjing Chinese.

Che, used to prefix /t͡ʃ/ (“ch”). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt.

Already /zhe, used to illustrate the voiced postveolar fricative /ʒ/ in Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uighur.

Learn About The Origins Of The Arabic Alphabet

It is used in calami to illustrate the voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ and in ormur to illustrate the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/.

Gaf represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uighur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish.

Ng, which replaced the phoneme /ŋ/ in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uighur, and for the informal representation of /ɡ/ in Morocco and many Algerian dialects.

It is used in Marwari to set the retroflex side flap /ɺ̢/ and in Kalami to set the voiceless side fricative /ɬ/.

Learn Arabic Alphabets

Vi, used in Algerian Arabic and Tunisian Arabic, which is written in the Arabic script to replace the /v/ sound (informal).

Ve, used by some Arabic speakers to replace the /v/ phoneme in loanwords and in Kurdish, which is written in the Arabic script to replace the /v/ sound. It is also used as /p/ in Jawi and Pegon scripts.

Represents the voiced labial fricative /v/ in Kyrgyz, Uyghur and Old Tatar; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; previously also used at Noga.

Represents “O” /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uighur a sound similar to French eu and œu /ø/. Represents “у” last rounded vowel /u/ phoneme in Bosnian.

Moroccan Arabic Language

Do-chashmi el (hāʼ with two eyes) used in digraphs for aspirate /ʰ/ and breath /ʱ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. It is also used to represent /h/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur.

Baṛī ye (‘big yāʼ’) is a stylistic variant of ي in Arabic, but represents “ai” or “e” /ɛː/, /eː/ in Urdu and Punjabi.

Most languages ​​that use an alphabet based on the Arabic alphabet use the same basic forms. Most additional letters in languages ​​that use an alphabet based on the Arabic alphabet are formed by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variations in Arabic have different meanings in other languages. For example, the variant forms of kāf

क क क ‎ are used in some languages ​​and sometimes have special uses. In Urdu and some neighboring languages, the letter Hā has split into two forms Ahlan! Want to learn the Arabic alphabet? You can find many resources and materials for learning the alphabet in this post

Arabic Alphabet By Sternradio7 On Deviantart