How To Write Arabic Letters

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This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the difference between [ ] , / / and ⟨  ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and Transcription Delimiters.

How To Write Arabic Letters

The Arabic script is a writing system used for Arabic and several other languages ​​in Asia and Africa. It is the second most used writing system in the world in terms of the number of countries that use it or the script that is directly derived from it, and the third in terms of the number of users (after the Latin and Chinese alphabets).

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The script was first used to write Arabic texts, especially the Koran, the Islamic holy book. With the spread of religion, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols. These languages ​​that still use it are: Persian (Farsi/Dari), Malay (Javi), Uyghur, Kurdish, Punjabi (Shahmuki), Sindhi, Balti, Balochi, Pashto, Luriani, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali and Mandinka. Moore among others.

Until the 16th century, it was also used for some Spanish texts, and – before the language reform of 1928 – it was the Turkish writing system.

The script is written from right to left in cursive, with most letters written in slightly different shapes depending on whether they stand alone or are joined to the next or previous letter. However, the basic shape of the letters remains unchanged. The script is not capitalized.

In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are Abjadi, and the versions used for some languages, such as Sorani, Uyghur, Mandarin, and Serbo-Croatian, are like letters. It is also the basis of the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

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Both descended from the Aramaic alphabet (which also gave rise to the Hebrew alphabet), which in turn arose from the Phoician alphabet. In addition to the Aramaic alphabet (and therefore the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets), the Phoenician alphabet also led to the Greek alphabet (and therefore the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets used to write this article).

During the 6th and 5th centuries BC, northern Arab tribes immigrated and established a kingdom around Petra, Jordan. These people (now called Nabateans from the name of one of the tribes, Nabatu) spoke Nabatean Arabic, a dialect of Arabic. During the 2nd or 1st decade B.C.

The first known records of the Nabatean alphabet were written in Aramaic (which was the language of communication and trade), but included some features of the Arabic language: the Nabateans did not write the language they spoke. They wrote in the form of the Aramaic alphabet, which continued to evolve; it split into two forms: one intended for inscriptions (known as “monumtal Nabatean”) and the other, more cursive and hastily written and with joined letters, for writing on papyrus.

The Arabic script was adapted for use in a variety of languages ​​other than Arabic, including Persian, Malay, and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may include altered or new signs for the reproduction of phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, Arabic lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), so many languages ​​add their own letter to reproduce the [p] in writing, although the specific letter used varies from language to language. These changes should be divided into groups: Indian and Turkish languages ​​written in the Arabic script td to use Persian modified letters, while the languages ​​of Indonesia td imitate Jawi. A modified version of the Arabic script originally designed for use with Persian is known by scholars as the Perso-Arabic script.

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When the Arabic script is used to write Serbo-Croatian, Sorani, Kashmiri, Mandarin Chinese or Uyghur, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic alphabet can thus be used as a proper alphabet as well as an abjad, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, associated with the latter due to its original use only for Arabic.

The use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To some extent, the style and usage follows the Maghreb (for example, the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf).

Additional diacritical marks came into use to make it easier to write sounds that are not reproduced in Arabic. The term ʻAjamī, which comes from the Arabic root for “foreign”, has been applied to Arabic orthographies of African languages.

Sometimes it refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes it is used to extend to almost any font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.

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It is used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally for Persian. (The term “Nastaliq” is sometimes used by Urdu speakers to refer to all Perso-Arabic writings.)

This spelling is fully vocalized. 3 of the 4 (ۆ, ۄ, ێ) extra glyphs are actually vowels. Not all vowels are listed here because they are not special letters. For more information, see Kashmiri writing.

г is interchangeable with г. Also, in Pakistan the characters ی and 2 are often replaced by ے.

Today, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and China are the main non-Arabic speaking countries that use the Arabic script to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and the Uighurs.

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With the establishment of Muslim rule in the subcontinent, one or more forms of the Arabic script were incorporated into the series of scripts used to write the indigenous languages.

Parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a short period of Latinization,

The use of the Cyrillic alphabet was mandatory. Turkey switched to the Latin script in 1928 as part of an internal Western revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many Turkic languages ​​of the former Soviet Union attempted to follow Turkey’s lead and switch to the Turkic Latin script. However, the renewed use of the Arabic script took place to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language’s close similarity to Persian allowed direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.

Pe, used to reproduce the phoneme /p/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish, Kashmiri; can be used in Arabic to describe the phoneme /p/ otherwise it is normalized to /b/, e.g. pol Paul also wrote pain

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Used to reproduce the equivalent of the Latin letter Ƴ (palatalized glottal stop /ʔʲ/) in some African languages ​​such as Fulfulde.

Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (which is written in the Sindhi alphabet); used to reproduce the phoneme /t͡ɕʰ/ (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao’erjing.

Che, used to reproduce /t͡ʃ/ (“ch”). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri and Kurdish. /ʒ/ in Egypt.

Же / zhe, is used to reproduce the voiced postveolar fricative /ʒ/ in Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur.

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It is used in Kalami to reproduce the voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/, and in Ormuria to reproduce the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /ɕ/.

Gaf, represents the voiced velar plosive /ɡ/ in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uighur, Mesopotamian, Urdu, and Ottoman Turkish.

Ng, is used to reproduce the phoneme /ŋ/ in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to reproduce the unofficial /ɡ/ in Morocco and many Algerian dialects.

It is used in Marwari to reproduce the retroflex lateral fold /ɺ̢/, and in Kalami to reproduce the voiceless lateral fricative /ɬ/.

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Vi, used in Algerian Arabic and Tunisian Arabic which is written in the Arabic script to reproduce the /v/ sound (unofficial).

Ve, which some Arabic speakers use to reproduce the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language written in the Arabic alphabet to reproduce the /v/ sound. Also used like pa /p/ in Java script and Pegon script.

Reproduces the voiced labiodial fricative /v/ in the Kyrgyz, Uyghur and Old Tatar languages; and /w, ʊw, ʉw/ in Kazakh; was also formerly used in Nogai.

Returns the “O” /o/ in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it returns a sound similar to the Frch eu and œu /ø/ sound. Returns the rounded vowel “u” ​​in Bosnian.

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Do-chashmi he (two-eyed hāʼ), used in the digraphs for aspirate /ʰ/ and voice /ʱ/ in Punjabi and Urdu. It is also used to represent /h/ in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur.

Baṛī ye (‘big yāʼ), is a stylistic variant of ي in Arabic, but represents “ai” or “e” /ɛː/, /eː/ in Urdu and Punjabi.

Most languages ​​that use scripts based on the Arabic alphabet use the same basic forms. Most additional letters in languages ​​using alphabets based on the Arabic script are created by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variants in Arabic have different meanings in other languages. For example, variant forms of kāfa

क क क ‎ is used in some languages ​​and sometimes has special purposes. In Urdu and some related languages, the letter Hā has deviated into two forms

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